Carl Grunfeld, MD

Chief, Metabolism and Endocrine Sections, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco
Department of Medicine
+1 415 750-2005
Research Overview: 

Our laboratory studies the metabolic disturbances that occur during infection. Our major focuses are changes in lipid metabolism and energy balance. Using intact animals, we determine the physiological consequences of the host response to infection and define the cytokine mediators. We then determine the underlying cellular and molecular basis for these changes using both in vivo animal studies and cultured cells. For example, we have identified regulation in the activity of lipid synthesizing enzymes and related proteins that occurs at the level of transcription or post translation. For transcriptional regulation, the response elements and transactivating factors are then defined. Transgenic mouse models are developed to define the roles of key molecules in the host response. 

Our laboratory has shown that many of the metabolic changes are part of host defense and not detrimental. We have shown that lipoproteins induced during the host response to infection scavenge toxic bacterial fragments such as LPS and LTA. We have defined the molecules involved in their neutralization. 

With regard to energy balance, we determined the mechanisms that induce wasting in AIDS. We also developed specific therapies. We have recently identified a candidate for the molecule that generates fever during the response to infection: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2).

Primary Thematic Area: 
Vascular & Cardiac Biology
Secondary Thematic Area: 
Research Summary: 
Metabolic Changes and the Host Response to Infection

Body Composition Changes over the Menopausal Transition in Women With and Without HIV.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Abelman RA, Nguyen TTJ, Ma Y, Bacchetti P, Messerlian G, French AL, Sharma A, Minkoff H, Plankey M, Grunfeld C, Tien PC

Bone marrow adipose tissue composition and glycemic improvements after gastric bypass surgery.

Bone reports

Kim TY, Schwartz AV, Li X, Xu K, Kazakia GJ, Grunfeld C, Nissenson RA, Shoback DM, Schafer AL

The Heart and Cannabis (THC) Cohort: Differences in Baseline Health and Behaviors by Cannabis Use.

Journal of general internal medicine

Keyhani S, Cohen BE, Vali M, Hoggatt KJ, Bravata DM, Austin PC, Lum E, Hasin DS, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG

Association of Vitamin D Status and COVID-19-Related Hospitalization and Mortality.

Journal of general internal medicine

Seal KH, Bertenthal D, Carey E, Grunfeld C, Bikle DD, Lu CM

Associations of CKD risk factors and longitudinal changes in urine biomarkers of kidney tubules among women living with HIV.

BMC nephrology

Muiru AN, Scherzer R, Ascher SB, Jotwani V, Grunfeld C, Shigenaga J, Spaulding KA, Ng DK, Gustafson D, Spence AB, Sharma A, Cohen MH, Parikh CR, Ix JH, Estrella MM, Shlipak MG